./t20181227_903470_taonews.html
专题
首页  >  专题  >  环球科学  >  环球科学<前沿资讯>

狗更喜欢吃肥肉,而猫出奇地喜欢碳水化合物

来源:环球科学

Credit: ? Tatyana Gladskih / Fotolia

图源:? Tatyana Gladskih / Fotolia

Summary:

摘要:

Dogs gravitate toward high-fat food, but cats pounce on carbohydrates with even greater enthusiasm, according to research into the dietary habits of America's two most popular pets.

根据对美国最受欢迎的两种宠物的饮食习惯进行研究,发现狗更容易被高脂肪食物吸引,而猫倾向于对碳水化合物具有更大的热情。

Dog's enjoy a fatty meal; cats surprisingly like carbs.

狗狗喜欢油腻的事物,而猫出奇地喜欢碳水化合物

Dogs gravitate toward high-fat food, but cats pounce on carbohydrates with even greater enthusiasm, according to research into the dietary habits of America's two most popular pets.

根据对美国最受欢迎的两种宠物的饮食习惯进行研究,发现狗更容易被高脂肪食物吸引,而猫倾向于对碳水化合物具有更大的热情。

The study sheds new light on optimal nutrition for the animals and refutes a common notion that cats want and need a protein-heavy regimen.

这项研究为动物的最佳营养提供了新的线索,并驳斥了猫需要富含蛋白质的食物来养生——这一普遍观点。

Findings were published this month in the Journal of Experimental Biology.

研究结果发表在本月的《实验生物学杂志》上。

"The numbers were much different than what traditional thinking would have expected," said the study's corresponding author, Jean Hall, a professor in the Carlson College of Veterinary Medicine at Oregon State University. "Some experts have thought cats need diets that are 40 or 50 percent protein. Our findings are quite different than the numbers used in marketing and are going to really challenge the pet food industry."

这项研究的通讯作者,俄勒冈州立大学卡尔森兽医学院的教授吉尔·霍尔(Jean Hall)说:“这些数字与传统思维的预期大相径庭。一些专家认为猫需要40%或50%的蛋白质,而我们的发现与市场营销中使用的数据有很大的不同,它们将真正挑战宠物食品行业。”

Dietary proteins contribute to a number of important physiological functions such as blood clotting, production of hormones and enzymes, vision and cell repair. Protein also has the most power to make the eater feel satiated; carbohydrates are No. 2 in that regard, followed by fat.

饮食规定的蛋白质对许多重要的生理功能有帮助,如凝血、激素和酶的产生、视觉和细胞修复,蛋白质也最能让你有饱腹感,在这方面,碳水化合物排在第二位,其次是脂肪。

Hall's research involved monitoring 17 healthy adult dogs and 27 cats over 28 days and used four types of food that were designed to taste equally good; with flavor out of the equation, the animals could make macronutrient choices based only on what their bodies were telling them they needed.

霍尔的研究包括在28天内监测17只健康的成年狗和27只猫,并使用了四种同样美味的食物,只要不考虑食物的味道,动物们可以根据它们的身体告诉它们需要的东西来选择大量营养。

"Previous studies have shown that if you don't balance palatability between foods, cats do in fact prefer to eat very high levels of protein and dogs want to eat a lot of fat," Hall said. "When you balance palatability, both dogs and cats prefer significantly different macronutrient content than what they would choose based on taste."

霍尔说:“以前的研究表明,如果你不平衡食物之间的风味,猫实际上更喜欢吃高含量的蛋白质,而狗则喜欢吃大量的脂肪。当你平衡味觉时,狗和猫都更喜欢不同的大量营养素,而不是根据它们的口味来选择。”

The animals studied by Hall and her collaborators could choose among high-fat, high-carbohydrate, high-protein and balanced foods. Each day, dogs had an hour to eat all they wanted up to a predetermined caloric intake -- that is, they could get all the calories they needed for metabolic requirements and to maintain weight, but no more.

霍尔和她的合作者研究的动物可以选择高脂肪、高碳水化合物、高蛋白和均衡的食物。每天,狗狗们有一个小时的时间来吃它们想要的所有食物,直到获得预先确定的热量摄入,也就是说,它们可以获得代谢所需的所有热量,并保持体重,但仅此而已。

The cats in the study were likewise not allowed to overeat, though even if given unlimited access to food that tastes how they like it, cats tend to eat in a weight-maintenance way by adjusting their intake based on the food's energy density. In the study, cats had 24-hour food access up to the point of hitting their caloric threshold.

研究中的猫同样不允许吃得过多,即使它们可以无限制地吃到自己喜欢的食物,它们也倾向于通过根据食物的能量密度调整它们的摄入量来维持体重。在这项研究中,猫有24小时的食物供应,直到达到它们的热量临界值。

Food container placement for both dogs and cats was changed daily to guard against "bowl position bias" affecting the results, which showed the cats on average chose to get 43 percent of their calories from carbs and 30 percent from protein.

为了防止“碗的位置偏差”影响实验结果,研究人员每天都对狗和猫的食物容器进行调整,结果显示,猫的热量中有43%来自碳水化合物,30%来自蛋白质。

Dogs on the other hand went for 41 percent fat and 36 percent carbs.

另一方面,狗狗的热量41%来自脂肪,36%来自碳水化合物。

Not a single dog or cat chose to get the highest percentage of its calories from protein.

没有一只狗或猫选择从蛋白质中获取最高比例的热量。

Within the aggregate cat findings were trends correlating with age and lean body mass -- how much muscle an animal has.

总的来说,猫的研究结果是,趋势与年龄和去脂体重有关,即动物有多少肌肉。

Younger cats with less lean body mass tended more strongly toward protein consumption than younger cats with more lean body mass; younger cats in general wanted protein more than older cats.

去脂体重较轻的小猫比去脂体重较重的小猫更倾向于摄取蛋白质,小猫咪比大猫咪更需要蛋白质。

On the dog side of the study, high-protein foods were the least popular among younger animals with less fat body mass; dogs with greater fat body mass had the strongest preference for getting calories from protein.

在关于狗的研究方面,高蛋白食物在带脂体重较轻的幼犬中最不受欢迎,带脂体重较重的狗最喜欢从蛋白质中摄取热量。

"Because the choice of macronutrients was influenced in both dogs and cats by age and either lean body mass or fat body mass, that suggests a physiological basis for what they chose to eat," Hall said.

霍尔说:“由于狗、猫对于大量营养的选择受到年龄、去脂体重或带脂体重的影响,这表明它们选择吃什么食物是有生理基础的。”

The research also involved determining the diets' effect on selected metabolites of each macronutrient class -- what they break down into in the body. Hall found the older cats' blood had much lower levels of DHA, a long-chain omega-3 fatty acid that's important for the brain, heart and eyes, than the younger cats.

这项研究还涉及确定饮食习惯在选择每种常量营养素的代谢物方面的影响,它们在体内分解成什么。霍尔发现,年长猫的血液中DHA的含量远低于年幼的猫,DHA是一种长链Ω-3脂肪酸,对大脑、心脏和眼睛都很重要。

"None of the foods had ingredient sources of DHA or EPA, another long-chain omega-3, but cats are able to synthesize DHA by elongating and desaturating fatty acids," Hall said. "The older cats, though, are a lot less efficient at that."

霍尔说:“没有一种食物含有DHA或EPA成分(另一种长链Ω-3),但猫能够通过增加和稀释脂肪酸合成来DHA。不过,年长的猫在这方面的效率要低得多。”

More potential bad news for the older cats: Their concentrations of sulfated microbial catabolic products -- protein-breakdown leftovers that in humans are connected to cardiovascular and kidney disease -- were significantly higher.

对年长的猫科动物来说,更有可能的坏消息是,它们体内含硫的微生物分解代谢产物的浓度明显更高,在人体内,蛋白质分解残余物与心血管和肾脏疾病有关。

"Just like with older people, older cats may have a different gut microbiome than younger cats, which would mean different microbial metabolic activities," Hall said.

霍尔说:“就像老年人一样,年长的猫与年幼的猫相比,可能有不同的肠道微生物群,这意味着有不同的微生物代谢活动。”

Basically, if a younger cat gets more protein than it can use, it can safely deal with and dispose of the excess a lot better than an older cat can.

基本上,如果一只幼猫摄取的蛋白质比它能利用的多,与一只年长的猫相比它更能安全地处理和分解多余的蛋白质。

The Pet Nutrition Center of Hill's Pet Nutrition, Inc., supported this research.

希尔(Hill)宠物营养公司的宠物营养中心支持这项研究。

 

Date:June 5, 2018

日期:2018年6月5日

Source:Oregon State University

来源:俄勒冈州立大学 

 

Story Source:

文章来源:

Materials provided by Oregon State University. Original written by Steve Lundeberg. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

材料由俄勒冈州立大学提供,作者:史蒂夫·伦德伯格(Steve Lundeberg)。

注意:内容可以根据样式和长度进行编辑。

Journal Reference:

期刊参考文献:

1. Jean A. Hall, Jodi C. Vondran, Melissa A. Vanchina, Dennis E. Jewell. When fed foods with similar palatability, healthy adult dogs and cats choose different macronutrient compositions. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 2018; jeb.173450 DOI: 10.1242/jeb.173450

钟艾辛(翻译)

原文链接:https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/06/180605172505.htm

本文来自:环球科学
特别声明:本文转载仅仅是出于科普传播信息的需要,并不意味着代表本网站观点或证实其内容的真实性;如其他媒体、网站或个人从本网站转载使用,须保留本网站注明的“来源”,并自负版权等法律责任;作者如果不希望被转载或其它相关事宜,请与我们接洽。
[责任编辑:环球科学]
 收藏:0
分享到:
文章排行榜
©2011-2019 版权所有:中国数字科技馆
未经书面许可任何人不得复制或镜像
京ICP备11000850号 京公网安备110105007388号
信息网络传播视听节目许可证0111611号
国家科技基础条件平台
./t20181227_903470_taonews.html
白姐四不像图-正版四不像吧-四不像精准图